Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Egypt Mexican Pyramids Essay For many centuries people have been fascinated by ancient cultures and treasures. During the last two centuries the science of archeology and modern inventions allowed people to get inside of the Egyptian and Mayan pyramids and discover the treasures of Egyptian pharaohs and Mayan rulers. Most of what we know about Egypt we owe to the pyramids. Thanks to Egyptian belief in the afterlife we can now find out about the civilization that existed nearly five thousand years ago. Egyptian culture is not the only culture that left us its heritage in pyramids. In America we find pyramids build by civilizations of Olmec and Maya about 7th century CE. These pyramids had different purposes and usage then the ones in Egypt but they stand as memorials to ancient civilizations as well. Egyptian people believed in life after death. One of the way pharaohs prepared themselves for the afterlife journey was by building a pyramid and putting there all their belongings and riches. Egyptian people believed that pharaoh is the closest person to the God and treated him accordingly. That is the reason for Egyptian tombs being full with the golden jewelry, precious stones and art objects. Most of the time art objects were not considered a treasury but they played their particular role in religious rituals. Jars were holding food and drinks for pharaohs journey, so he would not get hungry and would have food and drinks to offer to the Gods. The figurative sculptures were suppose to accompany Ka spiritual entity in its lonely stay or serve as a twin for the mummy. If something happens to the mummy the ka could use the sculpture of the pharaoh for the revelation. As well as for Egyptians religion was an everyday concern for many of the Maya, whether the dynastic ruler, the zealous priest, or the humble believer. Maya has an extensive religion structure which we can not know in details. Chac and Itzamna are the most famous gods of Mayan culture. Hunahpu and Xbalanque are among the most interesting mythical characters. One of the most crucial gods was Tlaloc, who was worshiped in various guises by the culture of Teotihuacan, the Toltec of Tula, and later Aztecs. The Maya received the cult of Tlaloc during the 4th century more or less. The Cauac Monster, also known as the Witz monster, is a dominant supernatural concept in Maya religion, as are caves, cenotes, and other holy places Maya Civilization pars. 6. The Maya built shrines, temples, and pyramids in honor of their gods, as well as to their kings, who ruled by all-encompassing concept of Divine power. Most of Mayan pyramids are temples to the gods, not the burial tombs as in Egypt. Even though Maya sometimes buried there their rulers they always put the temple on the top of the pyramid. Egyptians had temples near the pyramid or right next to it for the ceremonial services, but it never was placed on top of the structure. Also buildings in both cultures have a lot in common in their visual characteristics they are different structures. Egyptian pyramids originally had smooth equal sides meeting on the top in the perfect apex. Mayan pyramids look like one huge stairway towards the sky. It reminds of earliest Egyptian structures-mastabas, where one layer of stones was put onto another creating the effect of pyramid. Also The Tikal Temple on Great Plaza was originally plastered white. Then the roof comb was painted with reds, blues, and other colors to accent the different areas of sculptural decoration. These roof combs were like giant billboards, with immense portrayals of the enthroned king, larger then life size Cities pars. 3. Egyptians never colored their religious structures. As well as in Egyptian pyramids, the stone used to construct Mayan pyramids is local limestone, obtained from nearby quarries. The ancient Maya had no stone tools but limestone is soft enough that the Maya could utilize chert tools to work the stone in to neat rectangular building blocks. Egyptian pyramids served as huge tombs and they were constructed in such a way so they would stand for thousand years. Egyptians did not know when the spirit would return into the dead body. Pyramids were constructed of rough stone blocks laid in horizontal rows, in a polygonal shape, with triangular sides rising to meet in the apex. Some were originally as high as 750 feet. Egypt EssayBy the Middle Kingdom 2025 B. C the figures had become mummiform in shape, and their inscriptions clearly join the deceased with Osiris, the god of the underworld, who rose to prominence during this period. By late Dynasty XII 1850 B. C. The statuettes original function as residence for the ka has expanded greatly. Although the original identification with the tomb owner was never lost, the figures were seen primarily as workers who performed a service for the deceased, and they became known by the ancient Egyptians as shabits. Rapidly shabit-figures came to represent the deceaseds servants in the afterlife and were so popular that they replaced the model servant statues previously deposited in upper-class graves of the Old and Middle Kingdoms Life sect. 1. One of the most important traditions in the Egyptian culture was the mummification of the dead body. According to Egyptian religion the body had to be intact in order for Ka to return. Mummification of the dead body was a complicated and long process. The famous Greek historian Herodotus reported on the Egyptian practice of mummification: They take first a crooked piece of iron, and with it draw out brain through the nostrils, thus getting rid of a portion, while the skull is cleared of the rest by rinsing with drugs; next they make a cut along the flank with a sharp Ethiopian stone, and take out the whole contents of the abdomen, which they then cleanse, washing it throughly with palm wine, and again frequently with an infusion of pounded aromatics. After this they fill the cavity with the purest bruised myrrh, with cassia, and every other sort of spicery except frankincense, and sew up the opening. Herodotus sect. 1 After these procedures were done the body was placed in natrum for saventy days. They put the body into the wooden coffin which was shaped into the man figure. Sometimes the wooden coffin was placed into the golden one decorated by precious stones and paint. In Mayan culture we find no evidences that any techniques of mummification were used. In the humid climate of Central America it is very hard to preserve a dead body for such a long time that is needed for the mummification process. As we can see Mayan and Egyptian cultures have a lot in common. However, some major differences can be found. Mayan religion was not obsessed with an afterlife beliefs as Egyptians were. Their pyramids were built either for Gods or as a memorial to the dead ruler or priest. Egyptians built their pyramids for the dead. Their buildings were meant to be used in the other life by the great spirits buried in them. Some visual differences also occur. Most of the Mayan pyramids are shorter then the ones at Giza site. They are not sealed forever but has an access for the priests and authorized people. The major difference is that Maya put the shrine right on top of the pyramid. The stairs led from the ground to the top of the pyramid. This way people thought they would be closer to God. In Egypt only pharaoh was considered to be closer to God therefore an enormous buildings reaching the sky was meant to be the stairway to the heaven only for the pharaoh. Nowadays these both ancient cultures still hold many mysteries for us. Most of the things we know are based on the speculations of the scientists, not on the certain facts. Archeologists working on discovering more and more about the ancient civilizations that existed thousand years ago but appeared much more advanced then we used to think about it. However, many of the documents, scripts and art evidences disappeared during such a long time. Robbers, invaders and weather were the reason for the huge loss of historical items that were kept in ancient Maya cities and along the Nile. I am sure that in the future many of the mysteries will be unfolded, but as for now, ancient people keep fascinate us with their enigmas.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Executive Summary This report is a study of an Australian construction project known as Sydney Light Rail Construction and Extension. The project costs around US$ 100 million. It is a continuing project which is highly manageable.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Project Safety Risk Management Plan specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This project has been shown to be specifically risky in terms of safety. Risk management is therefore predominantly applicable for this project with special techniques and education being established for risk management. The project stakeholders relevant to this project are the contractors. The methodological approaches used in risk management in this project are risk identification, risk analysis and evaluation, risk treatment, risk management and control. The main safety risks identified on this project include site condition risks, fire outbreaks, wars leading to disputes, earth quak es, tsunamis, whirlwinds, low management capabilities of contractors, price increase of raw materials, environmental risks, accidents, water availability, contraction of major water pump components, lack of training, difficulties in capturing and stipulating the construction requirements and poor relationships between the incorporated organizations incorporated. The report focuses on coming up with a detailed Safety Management Plan. It will clearly identify the specific safety risks and requirements of this project excluding other risk variables. The risks will be controlled through arranging risk management duties, actions and financial plans. A risk officer who in most cases is a team member will be assigned the duty of managing safety risks in this project. He will be kept responsible of predicting possible project problems. A live project risk record will be maintained. In this record, each risk will have elements such as the opening date, name, a short explanation, probability and significance. A risk reporting means will be created whereby each project member will be endowed with the task of reporting risks he foresees. Mitigation plans for risks that are to be controlled will be prepared. Finally, planned and met threats, efficiency of the control activities and attempts made for risk management will be summarized.Advertising Looking for report on project management? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Introduction Sydney Metro Light Rail Construction and Extension is a construction project in Australia. It was opened in 1998 and is owned by Metro Transport Sydney. It is managed by Connex which is a principal transport operator in Australia on an agreement of seven years. It has a route length of 7.2 km (4.5 miles). This project came to Australia with the opening of the present tramway from the central station to the town area of paramount (Bent, Nils and Werner 2003). This project has shown high grow th with the pronouncement meant on 2008 that geotechnical explorations that are very important in constructing its tunnels had begun. The late South Wales regime has instigated a number of key transport projects such as Sydney link, The North West Metro and most probably west and south east in the future. The Metro link, which is a major component of Sydney link, is likely to change SydneyÃ¢â¬â¢s civil property with metro handrails.17 new stations are to be established in the North West Metro whereby some are to be through by 2015 and others by 2017. It is postulated that the North West Metro will offer high quality transport links for its dwellers as well as provide rail services to the inner Sydney environs. It is to function as a stand- alone system integrating world class plans and expertise. The objective of this report is to come up with a risk management plan for the construction projects in this company focusing on the safety risks involved in construction and how they can be controlled. Manual and intuitive risk management approaches will be used. Establishment of the context This report is prepared on the managersÃ¢â¬â¢ perspective. Managers in this construction project have legal liabilities in relation to the safety of this project. These includes providing a general risk plan and organizing the project risk management team. The project risk manager will come from outside to ensure neutrality.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Project Safety Risk Management Plan specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This report is relevant to both internal and external stakeholders mostly the construction head contractors and the sub contractors. The key performance indicators that will be used to measure the success of this construction project include quantifiable indicators, performance measurements, billability and percentage of projects profitable. The projects safety risks will be evaluated based on the likelihood of risk occurrence also known as the Consequence matrix. Communications and Consultation Plan The project stakeholders that have been consulted in the preparation of this report are the head contractors, sub contractors and the clients. These have provided inputs such as informing the managers of the most common safety risks and giving their views on how these risks can be managed. The project stakeholders that need to comply with the safety risk management plan are the contractors in general. This will be communicated through seminars which will educate them on how to mitigate risks involved in this safety risk management plan (Covello and Frederick 1988). Risk Identification Risk identification approach used in this project involved pinpointing and classifying safety risks that could affect this project and writing them down. These resulted to a list of risks. The project risk events were then compiled. This included a close scrutiny on the issues and conc erns established by the project development team. This was derived from an assessment of the project depiction, collapsing work structure, cost approximation, outline and construction schedules. Top down risk identification approach which entailed the use of chief executives with a complete view of the construction project was applied. Intangible risk identification approach which involved pin pointing new types of risks which had a high chance of occurring though being ignored by the construction company was also used.Advertising Looking for report on project management? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The uncertainty involved in this construction project came from many sources and frequently involved many partakers. The safety risks relating to this Australian construction project are listed below. Environmental protection is the first safety risk. This is due to the incapability by the contractors to be familiar with the requirements of the construction and the time it will take to obtain authorization from the dictatorial agencies. Risks due to public safety regulations were identified. This was related to situations where the risks involved in construction were likely to affect the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s health and well being. Safety risks occurring as a result of poor relationships between the organizations incorporated in the construction process were also identified. Such safety risks led to problems often concentrated on people other than project needs. Technological issues presented another form of safety risks. This was attributed to fast improvements in new technologies which impart new problems to designers and constructors. Technology was considered as a safety risk in this project since several design assumptions which have helped the professions well in the ancient times may be outdated in working with new types of constructions especially those with larger complications and scales. New buildings may thus end up collapsing in the future hence harming the public. Site condition is a safety risk to this construction project. This is specifically due to under surface conditions which constantly impart some degree of insecurity for structures with unknown features during operation. Other safety risks identified included contractual relations, poor attitude of contractors, communication problems and construction occupational safety. Climate conditions also posed a safety risk due to unfavorable weather changes. Risks associated with fire outbreaks, wars and poor relationships between the constructors were also identified. Other safety risks involved in th is construction project included poor safety alertness of top management, lack of sufficient training, uncontrolled operations, unwillingness to input resources to safety, difficulties in capturing and stipulating the construction requirements, difficulties in specifying the time and resources required to complete the construction and difficulties involved in measuring the development of the design during construction. Other safety risks included acute noise pollution caused by the construction, low management capabilities of sub contractors, tight project plans, unsuitable construction programme planning, variations of construction programmes, lack of dexterity between project participants, unavailability of sufficient professionals, lack of adequate amount of skilled labour, dispute occurrences, imprecise cost estimates, government systems, excessive approval procedures in administrative government department, incomplete approval and other documents, lack of resources, inefficienc ies in operations, regulatory risks, rebellions, strikes, personal risks, price increase of raw materials, supplier and subcontractor default, credit risks, legal liabilities, accidents, natural disasters, intentional attacks from an adversary, rain, water availability, inefficient energy sources, contraction of key water pump components, earthquakes, floods, storms, tsunamis, whirlwinds, risks that the project will not be completed in time, construction difficulties, political risks and environmental risks. Risk analysis and evaluation In risk analysis, the likelihood and effect of the ordinary risk events in this construction project were weighed up. Likelihood entailed assessing the regularity of these risks and gauging them as either qualitative or quantitative. The effect was examined by taking into account the elements depicted to a safety risk event or a sequence of events and their susceptibility. A good understanding of risk, disclosure and susceptibility of risks caused by natural hazards was ensured. Evaluation criteria in this project involved identifying the initial stages of the risk management procedure. This helped in establishing the focal point of the risk analysis and setting points of risk approval (Dorfman 2007).To reduce the consequences of ordinary catastrophes, improved understanding of the risks and their prospective effects was held important. Risk analysis in these project involved analyzing and establishing a ranking of these risks. The Likelihood of occurrence also known as the consequence matrix was used. The velocity of occurrence was multiplied by the impact of the risk. The impact of the risk was calculated on a degree of 1 to 5. This signified the least and greatest possible impact of risk occurrence. The likelihood of occurrence was measured on a range of 1 to 5, where 1 stood for a very low likelihood of the risk happening in reality while 5 signified a very high likelihood of the risk occurring. Both probability of risk occ urrence and risk impact changed in extents depending on the sufficiency of risk aversion and prevention actions taken. The top 10- 15 risks in this construction industry can therefore be ranked in the following order. Site condition risk, fire outbreaks, wars leading to disputes, earth quakes, tsunamis, whirlwinds, low management capabilities of contractors, price changes of raw materials, environmental risks, accidents, water availability, contraction of major water pump components, lack of training, difficulties in capturing and stipulating the construction requirements and poor relationships between the incorporated organizations. Risk Treatment/ Response Risk treatment techniques involved in these project included risk avoidance, risk reduction, risk sharing and risk retention. Risk avoidance would involve keeping away from all the activities that could bring in risks to the project. This would entail doing away with, abandoning or not getting involved in such activities. It wou ld also involve avoiding risks by shutting down a specific high risk construction area. Site condition risks could be avoided by selecting stable sites for construction. Wars leading to disputes among the contractors could be avoided by ensuring good relationships between the contractors. Risks as a result of accidents in the company could be avoided by enhancing carefulness. Risk reduction is another strategy that I would adopt to treat these risks. This would entail minimizing the cruelty of the loss arising from a safety risk or the probability of the loss from coming about. Sprinklers would be installed to reduce risks associated with fire breakouts. Risks associated with price changes of raw materials could be reduced by having cost budgets which plan for unexpected changes. Risk optimization strategy could also be adopted. This would involve finding equilibrium between adverse risks and the gains associated with their operation. This would also entail getting a balance between threat reduction and the applied effort. Outsourcing is another good strategy I would use to treat these risks. For instance, the construction company could outsource the assemblage of hard goods to another company while dealing with project management itself. This way, the construction company could deal with the project management without getting concerned with the manufacturing processes (Roehrig 2006). Risk sharing is another risk treatment criterion I would use. This would involve risk transfer whereby the safety risks associated with this construction project are moved to a third party through outsourcing or indemnity. Risk retention which involves admitting the loss or profit of gain from a risk when it happens is a good way of treating risks. It would involve real self insurance of all the parties involved in the construction. Risk retention may also be acceptable in cases where possibilities of large losses occurring are small and costs associated with their insurance are too high that it would hinder the achievement of the organizations goals. Risk retention therefore involves precise retainance of the risk by the group. Examples of risks treated through retention include wars. This is because losses attached to war are mostly retained by the ensured. Risk management and control The top 10-15 risks in this project could be managed by analytically selecting cost effective tactics for reducing the effect of threat realization to the firm. This is due to the fact that in any project all risks can never be completely avoided due to economic and practical restrictions (Crockford 1986, p 18). These risks could also be managed by sticking to a precedention process whereby the risks causing the highest harm to the project and the utmost possibility of occurring are dealt with first. Examples of such risks include site condition risks, fire outbreaks, wars leading to disputes, earth quakes, tsunamis, whirlwinds and price changes of raw materials. This is fol lowed by the risks with low occurrence probability and very little loss to the project such as low management capabilities of contractors, environmental risks, accidents, water availability, contraction of major water pump components, lack of training, difficulties in capturing and stipulating the construction requirements and poor relationships between the incorporated contractors. Equilibrium between hazards with high occurring probabilities but low deficits versus those with low occurrence probabilities but high deficits should be maintained. (Hubbard 2009, p 46). Risk management in this project could also involve detecting, categorizing and assessing risks. This could be followed by gauging the vulnerability of the key assets to particular risks and establishing the anticipated effects of these risks. Ways of minimizing these risks would then be ascertained and risk reduction procedures prioritized based on certain approaches. For these risk management approaches to be effective , it was ensured that they created some worth, were a fundamental part of the construction undertakings and formed part of supervisory management. They were to openly address improbabilities, be logical, well organized, comprehensive and consider individuals wellbeing. The control of the top ten risks involved in this project included activities such as arranging how the risks will be managed. This was to include risk management duties, actions and financial plans. A risk officer who in most cases is a team member was assigned. He was kept responsible of predicting possible project problems. A live project risk record was also maintained. In this record, each risk would have elements such as the opening date, name, short explanation, probability and significance. Risk reporting means were to be created whereby each project member was endowed with the task of reporting risks he foresees. Mitigation plans for risks that are to be controlled were prepared illustrating how a particular risk would be dealt with. Finally, planned and met threats, efficiency of the control activities and attempts made for risk management were summarized. Conclusion Risks directly decrease the productivity and knowledge of the employees, decreases expenses, good turn, brand value and character. Indefinable risk management permits risk management to create direct value from the pinpointing and reduction of risks that reduce productivity. If risks are inappropriately considered and prioritized, time can be washed out in dealing with loss risks that may not occur. Using a lot of time evaluating and managing unlikely risks can reroute resources that could be used more beneficially. Emergencies do occur and when they do, retaining the risk associated with it and dealing with the outcome is recommended. Senior managers should however avoid prioritization of risk management processes since these can prevent them from ever finishing a project or even commencing a project. They should control conflicts among the employees. Senior managers should also recognize that there is need for provision of incentives to reduce these risks. They should always be aware of risk problems and should always try to tackle some of these problems. Proper harmonization throughout the project period and good organizational communication should be enhanced. It is therefore clear that senior managers of this construction project should participate actively to control and manage the mentioned safety risks. References Bent, F. Nils, B. and Werner, R. (2003) Megaprojects and Risk: An Anatomy of Ambition. London: Cambridge University Press. Covello, V. Frederick, H. (1988) Seven Cardinal Rules of Risk Communication. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency. Crockford, N. (1986) An Introduction to Risk Management (2 ed.). Cambridge: Woodhead-Faulkner, p.18. Dorfman, M. (2007) Introduction to Risk Management and Insurance (9 ed.), Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall. Hubbard, D, (2009) The F ailure of Risk Management: Why ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Broken and How to Fix It, NY: John Wiley Sons, P 46. Roehrig, P. (2006) Bet On Governance To Manage Outsourcing Risk. Business Trends Quarterly, (1) 5-6. This report on Project Safety Risk Management Plan was written and submitted by user Malaysia Cortez to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Introduction The perception of American religion is changing with the entry of mega churches in the religious scene. Mega churches receive considerable attention from their leaders and attendees. Interestingly, leaders and members of smaller churches, denominational officials, church consultants, and seminary faculties pay great attention to mega churches.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Churches going Mega while small churches are dying out specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, political parties and media reporters are often talking about mega churches. The biggest church in the United States is the Lakewood Church in Houston, Texas, and usually has a total attendance of forty three thousand and five hundred followers. The United States has the largest number of small churches, which too play a major role in the religious landscape of the US.1 Due to the huge potential the small churches have in community building, they often grow into large churches once they have good internal leadership and surpass their resource limitations. This paper will focus on the growth of churches into mega churches and the decline in the number of small churches. Mega churches Mega churches are Protestant churches with at least two thousand attendees. Most of the mega churches are located in the suburban areas of the fast growing cities in the United States such as Houston, Atlanta, Orlando, Los Angeles, Phoenix, and Dallas. The majority of attendees in mega churches are the younger adults and most of them have attended a small local church. Research has shown that, most of the young adults that attend the mega churches are around forty-five years of age, and most of them are college graduates.2 The young adults around this age attend the mega churches because they have young children and the mega churches offer more programs and many opportunities for their children. In addition, the young ad ults at the age of forty-five have an interest in being connect and the mega churches gives them a good opportunity to know more people. The mega churches have strong believes, a well-stated mission and purpose and have high expectation for scriptural study, prayer, and contribution. With the level of commitment and zeal, which the leaders of mega churches have, these churches ought to be the future churches that every Protestant will want to attend. This had made mega churches to attract persons who are in need of a new experience of worship that entails large scale, high technology, and professional praise and worship3. The central activity in mega churches is worship and most of the Protestants view this experience as inspirational.4Advertising Looking for research paper on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most of the mega churches have introduced contemporary music using guitar and other instruments and in most cases accompanied by elaborate visual presentation. These innovations have led to the growth of churches membership. The small churches tend to be conservative and stick to their traditional mode of worship; hence, most of their members are the young adults because they long for new styles of worship. In the United States, Joel Osteen draws the largest congregation of around thirty thousand attendees on a weekly basis. During the weekly worship, life praise and worship bands lead the worship song. In addition, the mega churches seek to offer detailed visual presentation all the attendees. This makes the church livelier hence encouraging more membership. The mega church also offers three services to accommodate the large membership. Small churches are not in a position to achieve this due to the high expenses involved. Most of the Protestants are encouraged to join the mega churches because they will be involved in the churchesÃ¢â¬â¢ educational programs, fellowship groups, and community services. Most of the Protestants, who join these mega churches, come from the small churches, which ultimately force the small churches terminate their services. Seemingly, four types of mega churches motivate the Protestants to move in to them. While many mega churches focus on teaching, some focus on evangelizing to Protestants, who are not in church, others are prosperity of the gospel churches that focus on creating wealth and ensuring good health for their congregation and those that are youth oriented and emphasize on popular culture. The mega churches play a major role in the missionary work. This has enabled their membership to grow because their doctrines are spread easily among Christians. Mega churches support most of the long-term missionaries serving outside the United States. This has been possible due to their financial status. This has encouraged most of the youth to have and interest in joining the mega churches to serve as missionaries. The small ch urches lack the capacity to sponsor their members to participate in missionary activities. This has contributed to most of the younger adults who want to serve as missionaries to move to mega churches to have that opportunity. Most of the mega churches have full-time ministerial staffs who are devoted to missions. This has greatly contributed to mega churches being proactive in social-organization of missions.5 Mega churches also grow through the word of mouth, with the congregation reaching out to their neighbors. This makes Protestants in small churches join the mega churches.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Churches going Mega while small churches are dying out specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In future mega churches will dominate because of the financial resources they have and social power. Mega churches are making the effort to attract members of different racial and ethic groups. Mega churches we lcome diversity and middle class people around the church. This had made evangelical Christians to leave small and medium sized churches located in the downtown area the mega churches that are non-denominational, large and embrace professional worship. This has made the mega churches convince evangelical Christians to join them to have the new experience of worship. The mega churches have also come up with music from their choirs, have t-shirts written the church doctrines, and their leaders have written books that preach the church doctrines. This has made the congregation of the mega churches to belief the leadership of the church. It also encourages those who attend the churches to become committed to the teaching to the mega churches.6 Mega churches in the United States are growing at a rapid rate with the recent development being the introduction of satellite campuses of the mother church. This has influenced the way evangelistic Christians view the church and the lead pastor. Research shows that attendance in mega churches is so high as compared to small and medium-sized Protestant churches. This implies that most of the Protestants prefer to attend the large churches than the small church. Despite of the rise in the number of mega churches, the small churches might not die completely.7 Small churches have a major role to play. Small churches give its members an opportunity for spiritual development, community caring and social engagement. They also give their pastors a better chance to develop spiritual leadership and mentor them to be good pastors, as compared to mega churches. For pastors who want a well-rounded ministry, small churches offer an ideal place for that opportunity.8 Churchgoers are not comfortable with church symbols such as crosses, stained glass windows of some churches, something that mega churches have not adopted in their churches. This has attracted more Christian into mega churches. Mega churches also pay more attention to the pre ferences of their congregation. Due to the rapid growth of mega churches, the evangelical Christians have been forced to adapt to capitalism as a mode of spiritual development. The mega churches are consumer friendly and have knowledge about media. Attendee of mega churches are offered several options choices in ministry. Mega churches have high tech entertainment and other activities. This has attracted most of the young adults in mega churches.Advertising Looking for research paper on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most of the recent college graduates are too busy and if the church service is boring, they will not be willing to attend that church again. Small churches have not become accustomed with the entertainment idea and new styles of praise and worship and this had driven away the young adult from such churches. Due to theolographic limitation and some demographic factors, small churches have not being in capacity to draw many evangelical Christian. The demographic drawback, faced by small churches, is that, they only attract Christians with low household income, as compared to mega churches that attract the middle class young adults. This has led to small churches remaining small while large churches grow bigger. People dominating the population of the United States are at the age of twenty- and thirty-something.9 The mega churches will be the future format of worship, because they have adopted new technology in ministering their work, by using Web-based media to transfer their messages . Use of the internet is cost effective for the mega church. This has enabled mega churches to broadcast their teaching globally. In addition, almost all the mega churches have their services aired through, either radio or TV, though this practice is costly. This has improved Protestants commitment to their teaching and the way of worship. Conclusion In the last ten years, churches tend to grow larger. This implies that in the future, mega churches will dominate. The big-screen and modern worship service, adopted by mega churches, is in close relation with modern lives of Americans, as compared to small churches, which are still using the traditional church service with slow- moving worship and old hymns. With the young adults forming the majority of the population, the small churches have no future in the American religion. The future of the church is with the young adults who are now oriented toward the mega churches. Bibliography Battista, Andrew.Ã¢â¬ After the Garden is Gone: Megachurches, Pastoral, and Theologies of Consumption.Ã¢â¬ DisClosure 19 (2010): 83-94. Dart, John. Ã¢â¬Å"The Trend Towards Bigger Churches; Going Mega.Ã¢â¬ Christian Century,Ã 2010: 22-27. Dodgshon, Robert. The Age of the Clans: The Highlands from Somerland to theÃ Clearances. Edinburg: Birlinn, 2002. Ellingson, Stephen. The Megachurch and the Mainline: Remaking Religious Tradition inÃ The Twenty-First Century (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007), 321. Priest Robert, Douglas Wilson, and Adelle Johnson. Ã¢â¬Å"U.S Megachurch and New Patterns of Global Mission.Ã¢â¬ International Bulletin of Missionary Research 34, no. 2 (2010): 97-104. The Christian Century. Ã¢â¬Å"Megachurches a draw fro those under 45.Ã¢â¬ Christ Century 126, no. 14 (2009):17-18. Thumma, Scott, and Travis Dave. Beyond the Megachurch Myths: What we can learnÃ from AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Largest Churches. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2007 Tischler, Henry. Introduction to Sociology. Belm ont, CA: Cengage Learning, 2010. Tucker, Ruth. Left Behind in a Megachurch World:How God work throuhg ordinaryÃ churches. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2006. Footnotes 1 Scott Thumma and Travis Dave, Beyond the Megachurch Myths: What we can learn from AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Largest Churches (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2007), 8. 2 The Christian Century, Ã¢â¬Å"Megachurches a draw for those under 45Ã¢â¬ Christ Century 126, no. 14 (2009): 17. 3 Robert Dodgshon, The Age of the Clans: The Highlands from Somerland to the Clearances, (Edinburg: Birlinn, 2002), 69. 4 Henry Tischler, Introduction to Sociology, (Belmont: Cengage Learning, 2010), 312. 5Robert Priest, Douglas Wilson, and Adelle Johnson, Ã¢â¬Å"U.S Megachurch and New Patterns of Global Mission,Ã¢â¬ International Bulletin of Missionary Research 34, no. 2 (2010): 98. 6 Andrew Battista, Ã¢â¬Å"After the Garden is Gone: Megachurches, Pastoral, and Theologies of Consumption,Ã¢â¬ DisClosure 19 (2010): 84. 7 John Dart,Ã¢â¬ The Tren d Towards Bigger Churches; Going Mega,Ã¢â¬ Christian Century, 2010: 22. 8 Ruth Tucker, Left Behind in a Megachurch World:How God work throuhg ordinary churches (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2006), 99. 9 Stephen Ellingson, The Megachurch and the Mainline: Remaking Religious Tradition in the Twenty-First Century (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007), 321. 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Sunday, November 24, 2019
Bigger essays Richard Wright is the author of the novel, Native Son. By writing the novel, he wanted to awaken America to the realities of the relationship between blacks and whites in the controversial 1930s. When he wrote this novel, it caused many disputes among Americans. Many people thought that some of the issues Wright included in his novel were not appropriate to write about. Richard Wright believed that even the bad parts of America should be seen, though. This story takes place in Chicago, Illinois in the late 1930s. The main character is Bigger Thomas. He is a twenty year old black man who lives in a one-room apartment with his mother, sister, and brother. The part of town they live in is infested with crime, and most of the buildings are dilapidated. Bigger believes that he could never get far in life because of his being an inferior black man in a white world. Bigger wants to help support his family, so he decides to apply for a job as a chauffeur. He is hired by a millionaire named Henry Dalton, who allows Bigger to live in his house. Mr. Dalton and his wife, who is blind, always try to help their employees succeed in life. Everything goes well for a while until one night when Mr. Daltons teenage daughter, Mary, gets drunk. Bigger carries Mary to her room after she falls down while climbing the stairs. While Bigger is in Marys room, Mrs. Dalton comes to check in on her. Although Mrs. Dalton wouldnt be able to see Bigger in Marys room, he is afraid that Mary might make a noise and Mrs. Dalton might think that he is raping her daughter. In his terror, Bigger covers Marys face with a pillow and accidentally When Bigger sees that he killed Mary, he freaks out, chops up her body with an ax, and hides it in the furnace downstairs. Although he acts out of fear and doesnt know what he is doing, Bigger still feels a ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Research paper - Essay Example It assumes that the quality called Ã¢â¬ËbeautyÃ¢â¬â¢ objectively and universally exists. Women must want to embody it and men must want to possess women who embody itÃ¢â¬ . Her sentiments summarize how the society views women beauty and how it uses the perceived images to manipulate their lives. The sad truth as depicted in Barbie Doll poem is that women more than often fall victims. The stage is set from a normal birth through to a sad premature final journey at the funeral. This poem is a narrative of four stanzas written in a free verse style. Marge Piercy used different tones throughout the poem to pass the critical message of the impact of gender stereotyping on the women in the society. The tone of the poem depicts a depressed and sad life of a girl trying to fit into the expectations of the society but in vain. She uses a well known toy Barbie Doll to pass the message. She vividly describes real cultural and social pressures that young girls and women have to endure on a daily basis. Using culture studies approach, this paper provides a critical analysis of the poem using two different schools of literary criticism: feminist and psychoanalytic criticism to illustrate cultural and social gender stereotype on ideal women beauty and gender roles. Formation of Gender Stereotype According to Sharon Begley, stereotypes Ã¢â¬Å"make people painfully aware of how the society views them.Ã¢â¬ She argues that such awareness can extensively influence the intellectual ability of the holder as well as performance of other tasks (Begley, 2000 p66). In the poem Barbie Doll, Marge Piercy sets the stage by introducing the historical formative stage of the female beauty and gender role stereotypes. By using Barbie Doll an iconic beautiful toy manufactured by Mattel Toys, and widely adored by American girl children, she illustrates how the society form and transfer stereotypes from one generation to another. In this case, Mattel Toys represents the society and the t oy Barbie Doll bearing Mattel Toys expected characteristics of a beautiful girl or woman is the culture that is passed on to the next generation. The salient characteristics of Barbie Doll are; she has blonde hair, blue eyes, large breasts, a small waist, and large hips. According to Wald 1998, these are the symbol of beauty and are used as the standard to gauge girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ beauty by society (Wald, 1998, pp. 585-610). The first line of the first stanza, Ã¢â¬Å"This girlchild was born as usualÃ¢â¬ shows an innocent being brought forth into the world free from any cultural influence. Line 2 Ã¢â¬â 4, Ã¢â¬Å"and presented dolls that did pee-pee and miniature GE stoves and irons and wee lipsticks the color of cherry candyÃ¢â¬ shows clearly, the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in introducing and propagating gender stereotypes and the perceived gender roles. The items presented to her are symbols of ideal woman. The innocent child is orientated into chauvinistic society Ã¢â¬â to be a beautiful woman who performs household chores and thus, cultured with expected ideal woman characteristics of beauty (Barbie Doll and lipsticks) and roles (GE stoves and irons). In line 5 Ã¢â¬â 6 Ã¢â¬Å"Then in the magic of puberty, a classmate said: You have a great big nose and fat legsÃ¢â¬
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Siop ELL - Research Paper Example Developing Connections Waterman and Harry (2008) present ten recommendations to guide school staff on how to implement this connection, where we emphasize on: (1) school principals providing explicit support for parent involvement work, (2) offering open-ended meetings involving teachers and parents, and (3) offering parents an English as a second language class or a family literacy program (9-13). The school principal promotes parent-school collaboration through policy, staff decisions, and behaviors (Waterman & Harry, 2008, p. 9). These can be exemplified by being highly concerned with the parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ questions in meetings, and hiring staff that could work and communicate well with ELL families. In addition, initiating open-ended meetings for parents and select school staff is an avenue for both parties to discuss questions and concerns, and for parents to familiarize the school system, and for practitioners to be aware of the ELLs experiences (10). These assemblies would event ually create a trusting relationship between the school and families, increasing parental involvement.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Flag Protection Act of 1989 - Essay Example (2) This subsection does not prohibit any conduct consisting of the disposal of a flag when it has become worn or soiled. (c) Nothing in this section shall be construed as indicating an intent on the part of Congress to deprive any State, territory, possession, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico of jurisdiction over any offense over which it would have jurisdiction in the absence of this section. (d)(1) An appeal may be taken directly to the Supreme Court of the United States from any interlocutory or final judgment, decree, or order issued by a United States district court ruling upon the constitutionality of subsection (a). (2) The Supreme Court shall, if it has not previously ruled on the question, accept jurisdiction over the appeal and advance on the docket and expedite to the greatest extent possible. " 1989 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101-131, Sec. 2(a), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: ''Whoever knowingly casts contempt upon any flag of the United States by publicly mutilating, defacing, defiling, burning, or trampling upon it shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.'' Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101-131, Sec. 2(b), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. ... any flag of the United States by publicly mutilating, defacing, defiling, burning, or trampling upon it shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.'' Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101-131, Sec. 2(b), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: ''The term 'flag of the United States' as used in this section, shall include any flag, standard colors, ensign, or any picture or representation of either, or of any part or parts of either, made of any substance or represented on any substance, of any size evidently purporting to be either of said flag, standard, color, or ensign of the United States of America, or a picture or a representation of either, upon which shall be shown the colors, the stars and the stripes, in any number of either thereof, or of any part or parts of either, by which the average person seeing the same without deliberation may believe the same to represent the flag, standards, colors, or ensign of the United States of America.'' Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101-131, Sec. 3, added subsec. (d). SHORT TITLE OF 1989 AMENDMENT Section 1 of Pub. L. 101-131 provided that: ''This Act (amending this section) may be cited as the 'Flag Protection Act of 1989' .'' Texas v. Johnson In first 20 years, the Act was upheld by the local courts and Supreme Court refused to notice it, but then in 1984, during the Republican National Convention in Dallas, Johnson set the flag on fire during the protest. He was convicted of desecration and was sentenced one year in prison and was also fined $ 2000.00. The case went to Supreme Court which affirmed this decision. As a result of this, Congress enacted the Flag Protection Act 1989, according to which, the country's flag should never be desecrated in any form