Sunday, September 22, 2019

History of Database Essay Example for Free

History of Database Essay Storing data and files is an important aspect of business for various industries of the world. The storage of data in computers or database system is proven to be cost effective. Large or small database needs a system which will control the processes in the databases. Such applications are called database management systems (DBMS). From the time it was designed, the need for a good DBMS has increased because of the escalating number of data stored in the database. There are many available DBMS that private corporations use today. Indeed, database management systems have evolved due to the demand for the services that these systems provide. Database Management System A database management system is a collection of programs which enables the user or a network of users to mange files and data inside the database. The management includes storing, deleting, modifying, and extracting information from the database. It manages the request of the user and other programs installed in the computer or in the network. The DBMS ensures the integrity and reliability of the data. Some DBMS also provide security to the database (Tatum, 2003). There are many different forms of database management systems available in the market today because of the different private and public organizations or corporations which require different kinds of DBMS. However, there are four important elements that every DBMS have. These are the modeling language, data structures, data query language and mechanism that allows transactions (Tatum, 2003). The modeling language is the element that pertains to the approach used by the DBMS to communicate with the database. There are several approaches available today including hierarchical, relational, network and object-oriented (Christiansen, 2005). The hierarchical model makes use of pointers to navigate between stored data which is stored hierarchically in a downward tree. The structure is very inflexible in changing data and access requirements. The data is accessed by navigating from the root data to the data on the lower part of the hierarchy. In addition, the user should know the structure of the system before he or she can make an inquiry (Hsior, n. d. ). The network model is like the hierarchical model. It uses pointers to navigate through the data but it does not use a downward tree structure. It has limited flexibility in changing data and accessing requirements. Access to the data is accomplished by navigating through the structure and issuing specific statements to find specific data types in relation to the starting point of the structure (Hsior, n. d. ). In relational model, the data is stored in the two-dimensional tables. The data in the relational method is manipulated based on the relational theory of mathematics. The data types in this model are assigned with a symbolic primary key or foreign key construction. The referential integrity of the model is supported by the relational theory of mathematics. This model is very flexible to the data changes and access requirements. And the access to data types is based on relational algebra and relational calculus statements (Hsior, n. d. ). And lastly, the object-oriented model stores data as objects. This model is more direct than its predecessors since the design is very close to the real world model. The object-oriented model allows an easier way to maintain the database. The identification of objects is assigned by the system which protects the consistency of the data; while in the relational systems, it is assigned by the user. The database does not only store data but a whole application as well. Moreover, it can be executed inside the database. The concept of inheritance in this model makes code easily reusable. Furthermore, the object-oriented model is more practical and more economical (Hsior, n. d. ). The data structures are the elements that a DBMS manages inside the database. Different databases require different data structures which different DBMS manage. Data structures include individual records, files, fields and objects such as media files. DBMS need to define data structures to ensure the integrity of the data while it is being accessed. The data query language is the element which takes care of the security of the database. It monitors login data, assigns access rights and privileges, and defines the criteria for the add data function in the data base (Tatum, 2003). History The origin of database can be traced back to libraries, governments and other institutions that require storage of data. The DBMS was designed to ensure the integrity, security and accessibility of data. The design of the DBMS constantly evolves through time. It aims to create a design of which has better reliability and performance (Mann, 2003). In the 1800, Jose Marie Jacquard had created a machine, Jacquard Loom, which produced fabric from stored design from a punch card. The data of the design is stored in punch cards where holes represent the details in the design. In this way, the Jacquard Loom automatically designs the loom depending on the punch card in use (Tatum, 2003). Similar technology was used in the 1890 as Herman Hollerith created a mechanism that recorded information in a punch card which was coded numerically. The idea is that the data can punch in specific locations in the card, and then it can be counted and sorted automatically. This design was used by the US government to perform the census. Hollerith’s company solely produces the machine that records the data in the punch card and another machine that tabulates and sorts the cards. This company is renamed to IBM. The company prospered as it was able to produce machines that can record data for business and government institutions during 1910 towards 1960. The systems have records of every household and other data needed for the analysis of the society (Tatum, 2003). By 1955, many business and government institutions have floors dedicated for the storage of punched cards and floors for the machines. The machines work with punch-board which control accumulator registers that could reproduce punched cards or put data on paper. Some very large companies accumulate tons of data everyday that costs millions on storage. Thus, the need for a new technology has become very imminent (Tatum, 2003). In the 1960s, private organizations and corporations needed computers that have better storage capabilities and computers are proven to be cost effective against ordinary punch cards. In line with this, database administrators needed database management systems to cope with the increasing data storage capacity of computers and the increasing number of data being stored. The hierarchical and network model are the two main data models developed which were used in database management systems during the earlier years. They made use of pointers which was used to navigate through records. In these models, there were difficulties in adding another field in the higher level since it will require rewriting the scheme for access in the lower level data. In this system, the emphasis of the model was placed on the type of data to be processed and not the over all structure of the system. In addition, the user who will need access to the data should know the structure of the database before he can make a query for information (Vaughn, 2003). In the early 1970s, the Edgar F. Codd proposed a relational approach in manipulating data in the database. He published an article entitled A relational model of data for large shared data banks which became the foundation in the development of the relational database. The article showed a theory of how to store data in a rectangular or in two-dimensional tables and then use the theory of mathematical sets to operate on it. The relational databases represent the first implementation of the real database management system. Since then, the relation model had been the most popular or standard approach for database management systems (Vaughn, 2003). In the mid-70s, the theory of Codd on relational databases was put into research projects by several competing camps. During this time, the term Relational Database Management System or the RDBMS was coined. During these times, there are two main prototypes based on the relational were developed. These are the System R developed by the IBM and Ingres developed by the University of California at Berkeley. These two prototypes led to different kinds of DBMS. The two lines of DBMS created by the two prototypes used different query languages. IBM’s System R uses the Structured Query Language (SQL) and the UCB’s Ingres uses QUEL short for query language. Also in mid-1970s, Peter P. Chen proposed the Entity-Relationship Model for the database design which gave a new insight in the conceptual models of a database management system. This model gives the designer of the database management system a way to concentrate more on the use of data instead of its logical structure like other method does (Vaughn, 2003). In the early 1980s, the commercialization of the Relational Database Management System began to intensify due to the increasing demand of databases in corporations around the world. The higher demand was caused by the emerging business in the United States and other countries around the world. Another reason is that organizations and corporations had increasing number of data needed to be stored. Businesses rely on computers for their data storage thus a better database management system is needed to manage large databases that these businesses have. At the same time, many companies made some products which give individual users to maintain a small database in their own computer (Vaughn, 2003). In the rest of the 1980s, SQL had become the standard query language for many databases which was caused by the emergence of the local area network. The Oracle Corporation made the first commercial relational database. Moreover, the network and hierarchical models faded to the background. However, there are still others that use the network and hierarchical models (Vaughn, 2003). It was during the early 1990s when the industry of databases had a shakeout and there are only a few companies that survived for offering better products. The most important development on the computer industry was on application builders and programming languages. During these times, the prototype of the object-oriented database management system was introduced. The object-oriented DBMS is conceptualized to handle big and complex data that relational database management systems had a hard time to handle (Vaughn, 2003). In the mid-1990s, the influx of internet use revived the need for database industry. This demand came from internet servers in order to manipulate the large amounts of data which must be made accessible to internet users. Better security and reliability is also needed to protect the client-users and the information itself from corruption and tamper. As such, only a good database management system can provide this. In addition, the database industry during these times has reached the desktop computers in the users’ own homes. This provides desktop computer users to manage their own small database or access the large databases on the internet (Vaughn, 2003). In the late 1990s, the industry prospered in terms of internet sales and database tools. The e-commerce industry boomed since business transactions have been done online. The Online Transaction Processing and the Online Analytical Processing emerged (Vaughn, 2003). However, in the early 21st century, there has been a decline in the internet industry. Nonetheless, the database industry is still growing because the demand for a larger database and better DBMS is steadily growing. There are other interactive applications that emerged during these times. Three companies have dominated the database industry including Microsoft, Oracle and IBM (Vaughn, 2003). Nowadays, huge systems require a good way to manage and analyze data. These databases’ storage capacity for the data now reaches the terrabyte level. Such databases are science databases which hold genome projects, national security, and space exploration data. Shopping online is also one of the common practices today. Millions of buyers participate on this application, thus requiring a larger database and good handling abilities. There are researches today that is said to surpass the capabilities of the SQL. This development will ensure another significant growth in the database industry (Vaughn, 2003). Future Trends Mobile database is now emerging in various ways. This technology will secure a more remote access to database. Additionally, more and more people will access a single database at a time. As such, proper management is needed to ensure the continuous service and to prevent a system crush (Vaughn, 2003). Object-oriented database management system is predicted to dominate the database market as well as other computer markets. The emergence of the use of this model threatens to wipe other database models (Vaughn, 2003). As time goes by, there are certain issues that have risen alongside the creation of larger databases. Ethical issue is one of them; the larger the database is, the harder that people can efficiently manage it. Consequently, it is easier for perpetrators to subtly penetrate a system without being known by the administrators. In addition, some databases use automatic analyzing application which is sometimes unethical to use (Vaughn, 2003). Evidently, the database evolved from simple punched cards to huge mainframes. The advances in database technology have propelled the growing need for large data storage and management tools to access and analyze it. The database management system evolved as billions of information are generated by large business and government institutions everyday. The demand still grows as the internet community is still continuously growing. The future of database industry is very clear – it will continue to prosper and advance as the world continuously develops. References Christiansen, S. (2005). Database Management System. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from http://searchsqlserver. techtarget. com/sDefinition/0,,sid87_gci213669,00. html Hsior, J. (n. d. ). Evolution of Database Systems. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://w3. ocit. edu. tw/ben/foxpro6/article/english/ch01/page04. htm Mann, M. (2006). History and Comparison of Relational Database Management Systems. TechnoCircle HVB Information Services. Retrieved April 11, 2009, from http://www. guug. de/lokal/muenchen/2007-05-14/rdbmsc. pdf Tatum, M. (2003). What is DBMS? Retrieved April 10, 2009, from http://www. wisegeek. com/what-is-dbms. htm Vaughn, J. (2003). A short Database History. Hobart and William Smith Colleges. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://math. hws. edu/vaughn/cpsc/343/2003/history. html

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Marketing Plan For Persil Cleaner Planet Plan Marketing Essay

Marketing Plan For Persil Cleaner Planet Plan Marketing Essay With the recent new initiative of the Persil Cleaner Planet Plan being foremost in the companies mind http://www.persil.com/CleanerPlanet.aspx the main objectives of the plan are to be the focal point of this marketing plan. The development of a new product which is environmentally friendly, kind on skin, yet tough on stains is going to enable the achievement of these objectives. With the continuous introduction of re-usable nappy schemes throughout the world it can be seen that there is a potential market for a product that can meet the needs of consumers. In order to reduce the carbon footprint through the use of re-usable nappies a product has to be introduced that can wash at low temperatures. Previous research has shown that in order to benefit from the use of re-usable nappies compared to disposable ones certain factors have to be taken into account when washing e.g. low temperature, full load etc. The main purpose of this new product shall be the washing of re-usable nappies and clothes at as lower temperate as possible. To ensure success in achieving the objectives specific marketing strategies will be used in the marketing plan process these are segmentation, targeting and the marketing mix, all of which will establish the products potential. Cleaner Planet Plan Tactics Segmentation To establish the target market for the new product the use of demographic segmentation will be adopted. This will enable the company to reach specific consumers and help to understand their needs. A variable of demographic segmentation to consider is Generation X as they could prove to be a potential target market for the product, although getting the message across to them will be difficult and will need to be done via word of mouth. Targeting The product is to be mainly aimed at new parents; the recent baby boom will create significant opportunities, whilst also targeting existing consumers who care about the environment and the affect of global warming. With the initial use of penetration pricing the new product will be accessible to those consumers who wish to change from their current brand to a more environmentally friendly one and will attract parents keen on the idea of using re-usable nappies but concerned about the initial outlay, as this can often be quite expensive. Marketing mix 4Ps The four strategies of the marketing mix will be used to reach the companies objectives. Product In using the concept of benefit building figure 1(LearnMarketing.net, 2009) as devised by Philip Kotler the company can begin to get an overall picture of the product and its benefits. Figure 1 http://www.learnmarketing.net/totalproduct1.jpg The new product is to be named Persil Nature, an environmentally friendly, non-biological, hypo-allergenic washing powder with added Aloe Vera. It is to be made from plant and mineral based ingredients that are biodegradable. Persil Natures core function is to enable the washing of re-usable nappies and clothes at a temperature of 15c or better still cold water. It will be packaged in a biodegradable cardboard box with a pull out pouring spout. Preference is to be given to cardboard as oppose to plastic as the opportunities for recycling from home are far greater. It will be available in pack sizes of 850g, 2.38kg and 4.25kg. The labelling will have the typical Persil branding and will display a top tips section with advice on the best ways of washing, drying etc. to further promote the environmental issues. There will also be information to direct consumers to the companys Cleaner Planet Plan website. It shall come with a money back guarantee if consumers are not entirely satisfied with the product. Price The penetration pricing strategy will be used to encourage consumers to use the product. An introductory price will be used in the first few weeks of the launching of the new product. This initial price shall be in line with other biological products in the companies range. The price will then be increased in line with other similar products on the market, with special attention been paid to the companies close competitors. Table 1 below shows the introductory and increased prices for each pack size: Table 1 Pack size Introductory price Increased price 850g  £3.49  £4.49 2.38kg  £6.99  £7.99 4.25kg  £10.99  £11.99 The price will constantly be reviewed in order to achieve the maximum potential of the product and strategies put in place where relevant. Promotion A wide variety of marketing campaigns will be undertaken to reach the target market. The use of TV, radio and the web will help to promote the product to a wider audience. Advertisements will be placed in newspapers and magazines and promotional leaflets will also be used. The company will work in partnership with local councils, hospitals; through midwives and nurseries to promote re-usable nappy schemes and also the new product. Partnership will also take place with re-usable nappy companies, with money-off coupons being placed on nappy products and vice versa. Place The product will need to be in the right place at the right time. This process will need to be carefully planned as bad timing can have a significant impact on whether a new product succeeds or fails in the world of fast moving consumer goods. Distribution will be made through retailers as there is a strong market presence already there and they are able to have a more personal relationship with consumers.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Abortion Essay -- essays research papers fc

Abortion (Pro-Life) Movement Introduction Abortion is one of the most controversial and talked about topics of our time. It is discussed in classrooms, work places and even on the Internet. Abortion is defined as the termination of pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in or closely followed by the death of an embryo or fetus. This definition includes accidental abortion such as, miscarriage and stillbirths. But this is not what is being debated. People want to know if abortion is ethical, if the fetus can feel pain, and when it is more human than non-human. These questions are very difficult to answer and may never be answered in our lifetime. But one thing we as humans do know is that we have opinions, ranging from completely anti abortion (pro-life) to completely for abortion (pro-choice), and anywhere in the wide spectrum in between. Abortion is a movement that was erected almost 40 years ago. This movement has been very controversial over the years; the main reason being that it is something that there is virtually no in between. You either are, or you are not. Both movements, (pro-life and pro-choice) have been one of the most controversial movements in a political presents. The opposition feels that pro-choice does not mean Pro-abortion, it is the right in choosing whether to reproduce, adopt, or abort. It is every human being's right to make there own decisions, and so it is a woman's right to make the choices that affect her life as she see's morally right. It is a woman's right to choose what she does with her body and it should not be altered or influenced by anyone else. As you can see, there are two sides of this movement that are constantly looking for contradictions in what other believes. There are many different viewpoints on abortion in the United States of America. Where most Americans do not feel that abortion is necessarily 'good,' they do believe it is a 'right.' Others have similar opinions. They embrace contradictory opinions and consider abortion a form of murder and yet still feel it should be legal for the truly desperate. However, most Americans think abortions are morally troubling. A recent study by George Hunt shows that neither age nor gender appears to have any effect on people’s current views on abortions. - (Wolf p54) Movement Now that we know so much ... ... that way is not suitable for them, they need to make that decision to create a movement to ultimately achieve their discourse. Through researching movements, furthermore, the pro-life movement, I have to revert to an original statement I already made and that is, movements in today's society are essential. Bibliography Books Used Clark, Thomas. "Thou Shalt Not Play God" The Humanist July-August 1995: p3 Hunt, George W.. "Of Many Things" America 31 January 1998: p2 Lavelle, Marianne. "When Abortion Comes Late In Pregnancy, Though Rare, Most Lefevere, Patricia. "Ex-abortion Providers; Conversation Tales" National Catholic Reporter 16 March 22 2000: p6 Merril, Ted. "Abortion; Extreme Views Ignore Reality" Medical Economics 15 July 1996: p33 McMillan, Jeff. "Focusing On a Woman's Right To Self Defense" The Chronicle of Higher Education. 6 December 1998: pA12 "No Easy Quick Fix Solutions To Abortion Issues" National Catholic Reporter 8 November 1996: p20 Thomas, Judy. "Pro-life Turns Deadly" Newsweek May 13 2000: p64 Wallace, Bruce. "When One Fetus Lives and One Dies" Maclean's

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Virtual Reality Essay example -- Technology Science Essays

Virtual Reality Today’s science fiction is often tomorrow’s reality. As the pace of change has quickened, so it appears that we are actually living within a science fiction movie. Programs on TV continue to amaze or frighten us with yet more technological break through and with clever new products and gadgets. Over the last decade and certainly through the rest of this century, the major agent for these changes has been and will continue to be electronic computer and its derivatives. The Digital Age exploded into existence not with a whimper but a bang. The globe still shakes from its entry. The journey was long, but the impact is immediate. Now, for instance, the breath of an unborn baby can be captured and rendered visible, the Dead Sea Scrolls have been bathed in enhanced color, and Mona Lisa’s smile is safely preserved in GIF file. Throughout the world, many homes are lit by dim reflection of computer monitors. Illuminated manuscripts and images coax people to recompose real ity simply by clicking in. Mutation is taking place before our charged and filtered eyes. It is a dynamic re-vision that has altered every aspect of life, as we knew it. This phenomenon is not a fad or a trend, but an evolution. As frightening the new Virtual Technology may seem, it can benefit us in many different ways. Hence it is ethical to pursue developing this new field. Virtual Reality History Virtual Reality (VR) as a concept had its beginnings in the 1960s and it is mostly credited to the work of scientists like Ivan Sutherland and D.L. Vickers [1]. It is a simulation of a real or imaginary phenomenon in a three- dimensional environment. This simulated environment, believed to be real through feeling, is made of virtual objects crea... ...lt;http://www.southernct.edu> BIBLIOGRAPHY May, William. Edges of Reality- Mind vs. Computer. New York and London: Plenum Press 1996 Weimann, Gabriel. Communicating Unreality. London: Sage Publications, Inc. 2000 Kizza, Joseph. Ethical and Social Issues in the Information Age. New York: Springer 1998 Rachels, James. Elements of Moral Philosophy. New York: McGraw-Hill 2003 Inition ltd, Innovative Graphics Solutions. United Kingdom 28 Feb. 2003 http://www.inition.co.uk/inition/services.htm Barrie, Frost, Virtual Reality. Queens University 1 Sep. 1999 http://pavlov.psyc.queensu.ca/~frostlab/vr.html Altaf, Atif. Overview of Tele-Immersion. Università ¤t des Saarlandes 28 Feb. 2003 http://w5.cs.uni-sb.de/~butz/teaching/ie-ss03/papers/TeleImmersion/ Hot Virtual Reality Sites. 28 Feb. 2003 http://www.itl.nist.gov/iaui/ovrt/hotvr.html

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Friendship in Mark Twains The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn :: Adventures Huckleberry Huck Finn Essays

Huckleberry Finn - Friendship Mark Twain illustrates the theme of friendship through the characters Huck and Jim. Their friendship was created when Huck and Jim were put together due to common circumstances that take place throughout the novel. The friendship that was formed was constantly undergoing changes. Towards the end of the book the relationship that once existed as a simple friendship grew in to a father and son relationship. Huck and Jim were tools that Twain used to show just how the theme of friendship developed. Huck and Jim were both running away from society for one reason or another. Huck was running in order to escape from the constraints of society and conformity, while Jim was trying to keep from being sold to another owner. At the time of their escape it was easy and convenient for the two of them to be together. "The nigger run off the very night Huck Finn was killed"...This quote explains what the two did in order to get away from society. The pair decided the best way was to run away from it all. Huck and Jim's friendship undergoes many twists and turns along with the trip the two take down the Mississippi River. With each adventure their friendship grew stronger and deeper from their encounter with the Duke and the King to the riverboat scene the friendship is built one building block at a time. Throughout the novel Jim makes references to the kindness that Huck shows him, but Huck seems oblivious to their new found friendship. "Dah you goes, de ole true Huck; de on'y white genlman"...(pg. 89) When Jim made this statement Huck realized just how much this friendship meant to Jim. The friendship between Huck and Jim is constantly changing with the chain of events. The two characters encountered many things while floating along with the pace of the Mississippi, such as making decisions. In the novel Huck was forced to make the decision whether or not he would turn Jim in because it would be the, "right thing" to do because Jim was a run-away slave. It was a close place. I took...up [the letter I'd written to Miss Watson], and held it in my hand.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Entering the soft drinks industry in india Essay

India is an enormous and diverse country with a population of over 1 billion people, making it difficult to make any generalisations about what Indians like and want from a soft drink (Background to Business in India, 2011). The soft drink industry in India has been growing rapidly since 2006 and in 2010 generated a profit of $3. 8 billion and although the market is set to decelerate, by 2015 he market value will be $5. 9 billion (Soft Drinks Industry Profile: India, 2011). From this, India is an attractive marketplace with many opportunities for a soft drinks manufacturer to want to expand in to. Porter’s National Diamond: Factor Conditions India has a very young population with over half being under the age of 25 (BSCAA , 2009) This is an advantage to the MNC wanting to expand their business in to India as research by Euromonitor (2011) suggests that young people aged 16-25 are more likely to purchase bottled soft drinks. Conversely, the diversity of the population in India must be stressed as it is such a large country, with a huge divide between rich and poor. Also with regards to human resources, the MNC could benefit from the profusion of low-cost labour in India (Maan, M et al, 2011), meaning the MNC could move its manufacturing to India to reduce its operating costs whilst targeting the young population with their soft drink product. When assessing the physical resources in India, the MNC needs to consider the poor infrastructure in the country and how rural some of the areas are. It would not be advised to enter the market in east/northeast India unless selling cheap bottled water because the area is very rural and poor and there is only really a market for selling healthy, clean and sanitised water (Soft Drinks in India, 2011). However, south India would be a much more promising area to invest in to and the MNC would have better business opportunities here. Southern India benefits from a much more affluent population of young, employed people, who in recent years have become much more health-conscious, which has led to an increase of 24% in market sales (Soft Drinks in India, 2011). If the MNC were to invest in India, concentrating on one area to ensure they reach the correct target audience, Southern India would be ideal to bring out a range of waters and juices to attract the young, health-conscious population there. Carbonated drinks should not be considered at research by Euromonitor (2011) stress the saturation of the market by megabrands such as Coca Cola and the need for â€Å"healthier† bottled, soft drinks. These also relate to the social and environmental sectors of the PESTLE model. Porter’s National Diamond: Demand Conditions In India, there is an increasing demand for healthy and hygienic soft drinks but sports drinks will remain to be the most rapidly growing sector due to the popularity of sports with young Indians (Soft Drinks in India, 2011). The research from Euromonitor (2011) states that Indians have moved away from carbonated drinks due to the rising health awareness, and have started to purchase more water and fruit and vegetable juices. For the MNC to compete against the increasing international competition, they would need to think â€Å"glocally†. Glocalisation entails local and global activities acting simultaneously, where they would â€Å"think globally and act locally† (Glocalisation, no date). By adapting to the local environment, the MNC could gain a competitive advantage as an international brand as they would appear to take in to account the local surroundings of their brand and they are more likely to be successful as they would be selling a product that the local Indians would want. The MNC should internationalise to respond to the megatrend of competitors, which is a deterministic force, and then compete through adaptation of their product to suit the local surroundings in India. The strategy the MNC should consider after analysing the demand conditions is to consider both price and value together. They should differentiate themselves from other soft drink suppliers by offering a strong brand that young Indians are conscious of (Soft Drinks in India, 2011) but also an acceptable price. Although there is a huge poor population in India, if the MNC were to target Southern India as suggested after looking at the factor conditions, research by the Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs (2011) depict a large and growing middle-class population of India that have a disposable income of between $4,166-$20,833 per year; this suggests that they could price their product in correspondence with the other brands as there is a growing population of richer Indians. Also by offering benefits of a brand and a health-conscious drink that is in high demand at the moment, they can concentrate on focussing on that one area of India where they could possibly dominate the market in a smaller area. Porter’s National Diamond: Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry With regards to structure of firms, the MNC will have to consider how different India is in terms of how they do business compared to Europe. In India, the majority of organisations have a strong hierarchical structure, with one authoritarian leader at the top (World Business Culture, 2011). When investing in to the Indian market it is recommended to approach business in the same hierarchical structure that India have as it is indisputably acknowledged. If they were to enter the market dealing with business in a more democratic, flat manner, how Europe would normally deal with business, they are unlikely to thrive. In terms of rivalry, there appears to be a lot of competition from other brands of soft drinks. Bisleri holds the largest amount of market share with 23. 6% in 2010; however this is the main seller of clean, hygienic water in India (Soft Drinks in India, 2011). After this, Coca Cola and Pepsi with all their sub-brands hold high shares in the market in India. If the MNC were to invest in to the Indian market, the strategy they would have to take would be to introduce a new soft drink that promotes sustainable benefits of being a healthy, branded, bottled soft drink that is different from the standard carbonates that the international, well-known brands offer. By differentiating their product and adapting it to the local environment in India, the MNC will gain competitive advantage. Porter’s National Diamond: Related and Supporting Industries Soft drinks are sweetened with sugar (Beverage Health, 2010) and India is the second largest producer of this commodity in the world (Sugar: Supply and Demand, 2010). This would be a benefit to the MNC as a main ingredient to soft drinks is readily available and will be cheaper rather than importing it from other countries. Plastic is also heavily involved when packaging soft drinks, through a third party factory. Luckily for the MNC, India has had a high development of their machinery which can create high-quality plastic products, including bottles (Indian Plastic Portal: 2009). By having plastic bottlers locally available, the MNC will have an advantage on being able to easily be supplied the service; however the price at which they purchase the plastic bottles for their soft drink product could be expensive due to the competition of other, more established brands such as Coca Cola. Porter’s National Diamond: Role of Chance The role of chance could invalidate the advantages of investing in the market in India at any time. Chance events that could affect the MNC introducing a new soft drink in India could include: well-established brands like Coca Cola or Pepsi creating a new product which young Indian’s are more likely to be swayed towards due to brand loyalty; another chance event could be new health awareness campaigns that may affect a young individual’s view on bottled soft drinks. There are constantly rising issues concerning health and the amount of sugar young people consume which could seriously harm the reputation and also the sales that the MNC could potentially make when entering the Indian Market. Also factors such as soaring prices in sugar or limited water supply could dramatically affect the manufacture and production of soft drinks. Porter’s National Diamond: Role of Government Currently, India is considered at a low-cost option for organisations to invest in to with its strong domestic market, high savings rates and positive demographic trend (World Business Culture: 2011), however, this could quickly change as India’s government could, at any time, implement new tax laws, quality standard laws or changes in antitrust laws which could alter the ease of entering in to the Indian marketplace for soft drinks. The MNC must take in to account and assess all the different policies and laws for foreign markets to invest to ensure they can operate their business properly. Issues that may arise in this determinant will also occur in the PESTLE model if the MNC were to undertake this from of country analysis. Porter’s Five Forces Buyer Power: Research by Datamonitor (2010) suggests that buyer power is temperate within the current soft drink suppliers in India as they sell not only to independent retailers but they sell their concentrates to bottling companies. However, the buyer power for a new brand of soft drink in India could affect the MNC profusely; this is due to the fact that the consumers will already have brand loyalty to the well-known and well established soft drink brands in India. The buyers would have to have an incentive to purchase the new product over something they are already used to and like; therefore having a relatively strong power over the new entrant. Supplier Power: Due to the fact that most ingredients of soft drink products are commodities means that supplier power is reasonably low and these commodities are readily available, for example: sugar (Datamonitor: 2010). Water, which is also a main component needed for the manufacture of a soft drink product, could be a problem in India as the sanitation of the water can be a problem and the supply is not always constant (India: Development Policy Review, 2007). Finally, supplier power from plastic packaging companies is growing due to the rise in awareness of environmentally friendly packaging (Datamonitor, 2010). New Entrants: If the MNC were to invest in to India, to ensure they were successful, they will need to ensure that they concentrate on differentiating and adapting their product to the area and from other brands (Datamonitor, 2010). Research by Euromonitor (2011) also suggest that by having a strong brand name and by using national figures to advertise the brand, a new entrant to the soft drinks market in India will thrive. From this, it suggests that there is a market for new entrants as long as the product is differentiated and well distinguished from the other products that already exist. Datamonitor also recommend that a new entrant should stress the health benefits of their product to attract more consumers. Substitutes: There is a reasonable threat from substitute products in the soft drink market in India. Research by Datamonitor (2010) depicts the larger brands like Parle Bisleri to be a higher threat as they offer other kinds of confectionary products as well as a wide range of soft drinks and the substitutes are able to stored differently (on shelves at room temperature). Datamonitor recommends that leading brands, as they have a diverse range of products, can reduce the risk of the substitutes on their performance. Rivalry: Research by Datamonitor (2010) gives evidence that the marketplace for soft drinks in India is concentrated with the top three players (Parle Bisleri, Coca Cola and Pepsi) holding 74. 1% of the market volume. These brands not only offer standard carbonated soft drinks and bottled water but speciality bottled teas and coffees. Therefore, if the MNC were to enter in to the Indian soft drink market, to remain a competitive brand, they would need to offer an adapted product to attract new consumers and draw them away from the well-established brands they know well. The Diffusion Curve. (Pearce, 2011) India as a whole would be placed in sector â€Å"late majority† due to the whole population of India being respectively poor with a GDP of only $1190 (World Business Culture, 2010). This means that they would purchase the product but maybe not straight away, when it is released, they will start to consume when the soft drink has become much cheaper. However, in a much more affluent area like South India where there is a population of young professionals with brand consciousness (Euromonitor, 2011) the population would be within the â€Å"early majority† sector. This is due to the fact that younger, wealthier people are more likely to want to try out new products when they see others consuming them and also feel the need to try out new products if the benefits and brands are well advertised to them (Euromonitor, 2011). Recommendations After assessing the market for soft drinks in India, it would be recommended for the MNC to invest in to this attractive marketplace. It is important for the MNC to internationalise its operations to diversify themselves, to respond to foreign competition and to take advantage from lower costs and increased technological expertise. However, there are many factors to consider when entering the market in India: firstly, the MNC must take in to account how diverse the nation is. As mentioned before, the population is huge and it would be ignorant to make any generalisations; therefore it would be a sensible idea for the MNC to only enter the market in one area of the country, for example southern India. It has been discussed that southern India is a much more affluent area of India, in which are many young, employed Indians who should be the target audience for the MNC as they are accessible and sustainable. Secondly, the competitors in this area must be considered. In order to be successful in investing in to India, it would be sensible for the MNC to create a product that is not standardised but adapted to the needs and likes of the population in this area. The MNC should conduct some research in to what kinds of flavours and tastes that are preferred in order to create a product that would thrive in Southern India. It is also very important for the MNC to create a product in which the health benefits are a main factor of their soft drink. Throughout the research in this feasibility study, it has been stressed that there is a need from consumers for a soft drink where the health benefits are highlighted as although the carbonated soft drink market is booming (Euromonitor, 2011) it is saturated with other competitors; therefore, the MNC should compete through differentiation and offering benefits of their â€Å"healthier† soft drink product. Overall, the MNC has the chance of being successful when investing in to Indian soft drink market. They need to be careful when dealing with business with them, ensuring they have conducted enough research in to how they do business as it is very different to Europe, as said before, they deal with business in a hierarchical and authoritarian way. However the foreign environment is uncontrollable and the MNC has no control over the macro environment, so they must ensure to fully understand the marketplace and how India operates with foreign investors. Critical Evaluation of Porter’s National Diamond Porter’s National Diamond is described as a â€Å"methodological approach to analyse the most current industry occurrences and competitive status, and to identify emerging issues and opportunities for successful market development† (Batra, M et al, 2009). The diamond is used to investigate an organisation’s ability to compete in international markets by looking at four different components: factor conditions, demand conditions, related and supporting industries and strategy, structure and rivalry. Secondary to these four determinants, porter stresses the need for considering the role of chance and the role of the government in order to have a sound analysis of the competitive advantage of nations. Porter’s national competitive advantage theory suggests that a country’s competiveness within a certain industry will depend on the whether or not the industry has the room to innovate and advance (Wild, 2011, p177). Porter’s diamond is mainly concerned with how and why certain countries are more competitive in different industries. His theory amalgamates the two different denominations of international trade theory from country based theories such as mercantilism and comparative advantage, and also firm based theories such as product life cycle and national competitive advantage (Griffin, 2007, p164) There are many advantages of using Porter’s National Diamond: it allows an organisation to asses and analyse a country, covering all necessary areas to think about, ensuring that it would be a successful country to invest in to. It ensures that the organisation takes in to account everything they need to when considering investing in another country. Although it is only a forecast, if the organisations thinks about all possible occurrences and fully assesses all the components, it should give them an extensive knowledge and assertion that they are making a prosperous investment. Another advantage is that it is academically renowned and used by many organisations and governments across the world. However, Porter’s National Diamond has been criticised for many reasons: firstly it suggests that any role of government is negative, where it could be positive and encourage foreign investments and make domestic industries less competitive (Hadjidakis, 2007, p88). The role of chance is also too difficult to predict as any environment can change very rapidly and unexpectedly. According to Dickens (2007, p187) the diamond compresses too much complex and intricate information in to a â€Å"four-pointed diamond model† and this is not enough to be able to measure the national competitiveness of a country adequately. It has also been argued that porter’s model lacks any distinct definition of the four determinants which in turn, will reduce the predictive power and accuracy of the diamond model (Grant, 1991). Within international business management, when applying Porter’s national diamond, it should be ensured to consider every single aspect that Porter recommends in to major detail to ensure a forecast for investment is as accurate as possible. The different aspects of the diamond should be developed as much as possible so that international competitiveness is driven to thrive and succeed. Reference List Background to Business in India (2011) Available at: http://www. worldbusinessculture. com/Indian-Business-Style. html (Accessed: 10 January 2012). Batra, M. , Niehm, L. (2009), â€Å"An opportunity analysis framework for apparel retailing in India: economic, social, and cultural considerations for international retail firms†, Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, Vol. 24 No. 4, pp. 287-300 Beverage Health (2010) Available at: http://www. beveragehealth. org. au/scripts/cgiip. exe/WService=ASP0017/ccms. r? PageId=10053 (Accessed: 12 January 2012) BSCAA (2009), â€Å"Background note: India†, Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs, Available at: www. state. gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3454. htm (Accessed: 10 January 2012) Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs (2011) Background Note: India. Available at: http://www. state. gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3454. htm#econ (Accessed: 10 January 2012) Dickens, P. (2007) Global Shift: Mapping the challenging contours of the world economy. 5th edn. Sage Publications: London. Grant, R. M. (1991), â€Å"Porter’s ‘competitive advantage of nations’: an assessment†, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 12 No. 7, pp. 535-48. Griffin, R. (2007) International Business: A Managerial Perspective. 5th edn. Pearson: Upper Saddle River. Glocalisation (no date) Available at: http://rija-rasoava. weebly. com/glocalisation. html (Accessed: 10 January 2012) Hadjidakis, S. Katsioloudes, M. (2007) International Business: A Global Perspective. Elsevier. India: Development Policy Review (2007) Available at: http://web. worldbank. org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/0,,contentMDK:20980493~pagePK:146736~piPK:146830~theSitePK:223547,00. html (Accessed: 12 January 2012) Indian Plastic Portal (2009) Available at: http://www. indianplasticportal.com/plastic-industry-overview/ (Accessed: 12 January 2012) Mann, M. Byun, S. (2011). Accessing opportunities in apparel retail sectors in India: Porter’s diamond approach. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 15, 2. Available at: http://www. emeraldinsight. com/journals. htm? articleid=1926550&show=html#b7 (Accessed: 10 January 2012) Pearce, A. (2011) ‘Week 9: Production Strategy and International Value Chain’. The diffusion curve [Online]. Available at: https://elp. northumbria. ac. uk/webapps/portal/frameset. jsp?tab_id=_2_1&url=%2fwebapps%2fblackboard%2fexecute%2flauncher%3ftype%3dCourse%26id%3d_223681_1%26url%3d (Accessed: 14 January 2012) Soft Drinks Industry Profile: India (2011) Available at: http://web. ebscohost. com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=5&hid=24&sid=89a8abec-1124-46fa-8180-57eef84e8a7d%40sessionmgr4 (Accessed: 10 January 2012). Soft Drinks in India (2011) Available at: http://www. portal. euromonitor. com/Portal/Pages/Search/SearchResultsList. aspx (Accessed 10 January 2012) Sugar: Supply and Demand (2010) Available at: http://www. spectrumcommodities. com/education/commodity/statistics/sugar. html.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Implementing Strategic Choice

What advice would you give to management concerning the best way to implement strategic choices in an organization? There are four types of tactics that management can use to implement strategic plans in an organization: intervention, persuasion, participation, and edict. Intervention tactics begins when a manager decides to make strategic changes. The manager creates the need for change in minds of the group (leaders, peers) by reforming the systems (Nutt, 1998).This is done by showing a comparison between the present system and a reform system and showing performance gap. Then, the manager is ready to create steps to implement intervention tactics. Before using these steps, it is essential for a manager to be educated on possibilities, redirected threats, managed anger, built confidence, and reinforced the plans (Huse, 1975). It demands high level skills to create new norms to show the need for change for the organization. 2. How would your advice change based on whether the organi zation's environment was dynamic versus stable?A dynamic organization's environment has is one that is full of possible opportunities and possible treats. Therefore, managers, specifically planners and policy makers cannot analyze future environment? s condition with an assumption that it will stay in a predictable state. Managers are challenged to make environmental decisions to improve performance. According to Carlsson and El Sawy (2008), Decision making in turbulent environments is challenging because managers must decide and act rapidly.Consequently, decision-makers must plan for the uncertainties of the environment. One of the main factors that contribute to the sense of uncertainties is lack of communication. The lack of communication that prevents managers from making organization environment decisions such as: lack of information and lack of knowledge. In contrast, in a stable and predictable environment, managers who are the decision-makers can adhere to a long-term plan w hereas the uncertain or dynamic environment plans are short-term.